Friday, January 7, 2011

Substitution Of Rice Bran to Wheat Flour For Making "Rice Bran Bread" As A Fungtional Food Product

Rice Bran
Bran is the hard outer layer of grain and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, and is often produced as a by-product of milling in the production of refined grains. When bran is removed from grains, the latter lose a portion of their nutritional value. Bran is present in and may be milled from any cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley and millet. Bran should not be confused with chaff, which is coarser scaly material surrounding the grain, but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein, vitamins and dietary minerals. 

Nutrition and Calories in Rice Bran Bread
Water content (grams per 100g) 41
Calorie content of Food (kcals per 100g/3.5oz) 243
Protein content (grams per 100g) 8.9
Fat content (lipids) (grams per 100g) 4.6
Ash content (grams per 100g) 2
Carbohydrate content (grams per 100g) 43.5
Dietary Fiber content (grams per 100g) 4.9
Sugar content (grams per 100g) 4.67
Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process (the conversion of brown rice to white rice), and it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%-13% oil and highly unsaponifiable components (4.3%). This fraction contains tocotrienols (a form of vitamin E), gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol, all these constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma levels of the various parameters of the lipid profile. Rice bran also contains a high level of dietary fibres (beta-glucan, pectin and gum). In addition, it also contains ferulic acid, which is also a component of the structure of non-lignified cell walls. However, some research suggests that there are levels of inorganic arsenic (a toxin and carcinogen) present in rice bran. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Other types of bran (derived from wheat, oat or barley) contain less arsenic than rice bran, but not necessarily the same health benefits.
The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is often separated from the grain before storage or further processing. The bran itself can be heat-treated to increase its longevity. Bran is often used to enrich breads (notably muffins) and breakfast cereals, especially for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may also be used for pickling (nukazuke) as in the tsukemono of Japan.
Rice bran finds particularly many uses in Japan, where it is known as nuka. Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people also add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots and use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is called Jinda and used for stewing fish, such as sardine.
Rice bran and rice bran oil are widely used in Japan as a natural beauty treatment. The high levels of oleic acids make it particularly well absorbed by human skin, and it contains over 100 known vitamins, minerals and antioxidants including gamma oryzanol which is believed to impact pigment development. Bran oil may be also extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes (such as in the paint industry), or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil.
In Romania, the fermented wheat bran is usually used when preparing sour soups, called borscht. Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme, Gardeners' World. It is a common substrate and food source used for feeder insects such as mealworms and waxworms.

Health Effects
Eating foods rich in bran became somewhat of a health craze in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with massive promotion of bran cereals and granola. In the late 1980s, there was the "oat bran craze," with oat products in all shapes and sizes flooding the market (including potato chips with oat bran added), claiming to lower blood cholesterol and fight heart disease. This craze peaked in 1989 and was short-lived, as studies in the early 1990s showed that oat bran only modestly reduced cholesterol. However, in January 1997, the Food and Drug Administration decided (with some controversy) that food with a lot of oat bran or rolled oats can carry a label claiming it may reduce the risk of heart disease, when combined with a low-fat diet. As of 2005, this fact still appears on many oatmeal packages.
Wheat bran (miller's bran) is very effective in treating constipation. Wheat bran is known to absorb large amounts of water and expand, which has led some to claim that bran helps lead to satiety by filling up the stomach with added volume.
Colorectal cancer might be prevented by dietary wheat bran. Indeed, many epidemiological studies pointed out a protective effect of fiber intake, and more than 15 preclinical studies show that wheat bran can reduce carcinogenesis in rats and mice. Thus, several randomized clinical trials were conducted in hundreds of volunteers to test the hypothesis that wheat bran supplements would reduce adenomatous polyp recurrence. Clinical and preclinical data are avalaible on the Chemoprevention Database. Sadly, the main conclusion of these trials is that wheat bran does not prevent colorectal polyp recurrence: bran may thus not be an effective colon cancer preventing agent.
Oat bran, alone or as a part of oatmeal, has been shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease when part of an overall diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, and the United States Food and Drug Administration now allows manufacturers to make specific health claims to that effect on food packaging.
Rice bran fraction derived from Driselase treatment prevents high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Driselase is a commercial plant cell wall-degrading enzyme mixture containing cellulase, xylanase, and laminarinase; however, it is esterase-free. 

Picture of me and Kadek (my friend) after winning a National Food Technology Competition in Surabaya on the 13th of June, 2007. With our subject :
Substitution Of Rice Bran to Wheat Flour For Making "Rice Bran Bread" As A Fungtional Food Product

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